teaching of problem solving

probleminis mokymas statusas T sritis švietimas apibrėžtis Mokymo kryptis, grindžiama kūrybiniu mąstymu sprendžiant iškilusias teorines ar praktines problemas. Probleminio mokymo pradininku laikomas XX a. I pusės JAV pedagogas Dž. Diujis. Jis nurodė tokius probleminio mąstymo etapus: 1) atsiradusio sunkumo, problemos pajutimas; 2) problemos išaiškinimas ir suformulavimas; 3) galimo sprendimo numatymas (hipotezės formulavimas); 4) hipotezės loginis patikrinimas (galimi hipotezės tikrinimo rezultatai); 5) veikimas pagal hipotezę (stebėjimas, eksperimentas hipotezei patikrinti, kuri, remiantis duomenimis, priimama arba atmetama). Problemos sprendimo etapai – nuoseklios sprendimo stadijos (pagal M. Machmutovą, 1975): 1) problemos sprendimo planavimas (sisteminis, analitinis, algoritminis arba heuristinis (spėjimų, prielaidų) planas); 2) hipotezių kėlimas ir pagrindimas (sprendimo idėjų, principų numatymas, jų racionalus pagrindimas ieškant tinkamos medžiagos, deduktyviai (perkėlimu arba analogija) arba induktyviai protaujant); 3) hipotezės įrodymas (tezių argumentavimas nuosekliu protavimu nustatant padarinius, juos grindžiant faktais, analizuojant); 4) problemos sprendimo tikrinimas (siejimas su praktika, išbandymas praktiškai atsižvelgiant į mokomojo dalyko specifiką); 5) sprendimo kartojimas ir analizė (klaidų analizė, pritaikymas naujose situacijose). atitikmenys: angl. teaching of problem solving vok. Problemunterricht rus. проблемное обучение ryšiai: dar žiūrėksprendimas

Enciklopedinis edukologijos žodynas. 2007.

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